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Footnotes should be used when:

Citing specific facts, opinions, or exact quotations;


Making cross-references to other material;


Making incidental comments or;


Acknowledging someone else’s work.[1]

Footnote numbers should be sequential beginning with (1) and continue throughout the paper. Footnote numbers should be placed at the end of the sentence.  The number should be placed slightly above the line at the end of the sentence and without a period or other embellishment.

Footnotes should be arranged in numerical order at the foot of the page and separated from the text by a line 2 ½ inches long extending from the left margin.  All items to which a reference is made should appear on the same page as the footnote (see examples below).
The formats for footnotes and bibliographic references differ slightly, so attention is required.

Opere citato (op. cit.) is Latin meaning a reference previously cited.  It should be used when quoting from a reference used earlier in the paper.  Proper format is to use the abbreviation—op. cit., then the author’s last name, then the page number.  

         Op. cit., Bozeman, p. 34.

Ibidem (ibid.) is Latin meaning the reference cited just before.  It should be used when quoting a citation from the same reference as the one immediately preceding it on the page.  Proper format is to used the abbreviation—ibid., then the page number.  

           Ibid., p. 37.
Examples of Footnotes:
(Single Author):
          Peter J. May, Recovering from Catastrophes  (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985)   p. 97.
(Multiple Author):  
          Dennis S. Militi, Thomas E. Drabek, and J. Eugene Haas, Human Systems in Extreme Environments: A Sociological perspective  (Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press, 1975) pp.89-90.
(Article in a Book):
         Dwight W. Chapman, “A Brief Introduction to Contemporary Disaster Research,” in Man and Society in Disaster, edited by George W. Baker and Dwight W. Chapman  (New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1962) p. 18.
           “Bay-Area Community Groups Accuse U.S. of Slighting Poor after Quake,” Washington Post, 16 November 1989, sec. A. p. 17.
          Robert Agranoff and Valerie A. Lindsey, “Intergovernmental Management: Perspectives from Human Service Problem Solving at the Local Level,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (May/June 1983): 227.
          Tim Darnell, “A State of Emergency,” American City and County, Vol. 104, No. 12 (December, 1989): 25.
(No Author):
          Encyclopedia Americana, 1964 ed., s. v. “Red Cross.”
          Interview with Richard N, Smith, Deputy Manager, Eastern Operations Headquarters, American Red Cross, 9 March 1990.

Unpublished Papers

          Louis J. Levy and Llewellyn M. Toulmin, “Improving Disaster Planning and Response Efforts: Lessons From Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki,” Paper prepared for Booz-Allen & Hamilton, August 1993.  p. 16.

Government Documents
          Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, "U.S. Scholarship Program for Developing Countries" (Washington, D.C.:  GPO, 1984), 7.
          Departmnent of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Resource Book:  Training for Federal Employee Compensation Specialists (Washington, D.C., 1984), 236.

Electronic Documents

          Lawrence Squires. “A virtual Tour of the White Hhouse, circa 1900,” National Landmarks: Then and Now, 1999  <http://www.natlandmk.com/hist> (21 August 2000).

          Weather Underground, 92 min., New Video Group, Inc., 2004, videocassette.
Personal Comments

          It was the success of citizens "cordinating" groups in the aftermath of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane and flood that led to the populatity of the city council form of government.


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        [1] Kate L. Terabian,   A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.  6th ed., (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago

Press, 1996), p. 118.